Sudetenland And The Munich Agreement 1938
On 28 and 29 April 1938, Daladier met with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in London to discuss the situation. Chamberlain, who could not see how Hitler could be prevented from completely destroying Czechoslovakia if that was his intention (which Chamberlain doubted), argued that Prague should be pushed to make territorial concessions to Germany. Both French and British leaders believed that peace could only be saved by the transfer of the German Sudeten regions from Czechoslovakia. September 29-30, 1938 – Britain, France, Germany and Italy meet in Munich. What was decisive was that Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union were not present. The four countries agreed between 1 and 10 October on the German occupation of the Sudetenland. German troops occupy the Sudetenland. Britain and France have pursued a policy of appeasement. Neville Chamberlain returned to Britain, claiming that he had established peace in our time. However, after the deal, Britain and France accelerated their own rearmament plans. Chamberlain`s claim turned out to be a false hope, since within a year after the start of World War II had begun. Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations.
The Czechoslovak government, which recognized the desperation of fighting alone against the Nazis, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany from October 10, the Sudetenland and, de facto, control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On September 30, after a break, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After translating it for him, Hitler`s interpreter happily agreed. By May 1938, it was known that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks needed military help from France, with whom they had an alliance. The Soviet Union also had a treaty with Czechoslovakia, and it expressed its willingness to cooperate with France and Britain when they decided to come and defend Czechoslovakia, but the Soviet Union and its potential services were ignored during the crisis.30 May 1938 – Hitler orders the destruction of Czechoslovakia by October 1. September 12, 1938: Hitler gives a speech in which he attacks Czechoslovakia. As threats from Germany and a European war became increasingly evident, opinions changed.
Chamberlain was rewarded for his role as one of the “Men of Munich” in books like the Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defense of the agreement during the war came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Chancellor of the Lord. Maugham considered the decision to create a Czechoslovak state with significant German and Hungarian minorities to be a “dangerous experiment” in light of previous disputes and attributed the agreement to the need for France to free itself from its contractual obligations in the face of its lack of preparation for war.  After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of that time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement had been false in Munich, and they recorded Churchill`s pre-war warnings of Hitler`s plan of attack and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain. While acknowledging that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, Churchill argued that Hitler should have been resisted in Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to involve the Soviet Union.