Un Agreement On Nuclear Weapons
The treaty is seen as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime and an essential basis for the continuation of nuclear disarmament. It was designed to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to promote the objectives of general and complete disarmament and promote cooperation on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy Article 3 obliges non-nuclear-weapon parties to maintain the IAEA`s existing safeguards and, if they have not yet done so, to accept guarantees based on the model of non-nuclear-weapon States under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. A mandate adopted by the UN General Assembly on 23 December 2016 included two negotiating sessions: 27-31 March and 15 June to 7 July 2017. The treaty was adopted on 7 July by 122 votes in and 1 against (Netherlands) and 1 official abstention (Singapore). 69 nations did not vote, including all nuclear-weapon states and all NATO members, except the Netherlands.  By its resolution 71/258, the General Assembly decided to convene a United Nations conference in 2017 to negotiate a legally binding instrument for the prohibition of nuclear weapons, which would lead to their total elimination. The Assembly encouraged all Member States to participate in the conference, which was attended by international organizations and representatives of civil society. Article 1 provides for prohibitions against the development, experimentation, manufacture, storage, deployment, transfer, use and threat of the use of nuclear weapons, as well as against the support and promotion of prohibited activities. Finally, any “control of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices” direct or indirect is prohibited. Efforts to ban nuclear weapons date back to the beginning of the nuclear era.
However, the Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty has its origins in the Humanitarian Initiative, a group of states that have not issued nuclear weapons, which have attempted to advance nuclear disarmament by focusing on the serious humanitarian consequences of nuclear war. The movement`s support in the international community has severely prevented supporters of the humanitarian initiative from making significant progress towards nuclear disarmament at the 2015 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Review Conference (NPT). There are two possibilities for a nuclear state to join the treaty and eliminate its nuclear weapons: it can join the treaty and then destroy its nuclear weapons or destroy its nuclear weapons and then join the treaty. States that must “destroy and adhere” must cooperate with a “competent international authority” designated by the treaty to verify the dismantling. States that “adhere and destroy” must immediately withdraw nuclear weapons from their state of operation and submit a temporary plan of destruction within 60 days of accession to the treaty. The second conference on the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13-14 February. Conference participants reiterated their call for the development of new international standards for nuclear weapons, including a legally binding instrument within a specified time frame. 2013Murz 4-5: The first conference on the humanitarian impact of the use of nuclear weapons will be held in Oslo, Norway. According to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), a coalition of NGOs, Ireland, Austria   Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa and Thailand are among the main proponents of the ban on nuclear weapons.  All 54 african nations (all but one of them, signed or ratified the 1996 Pelindaba Treaty establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the continent and the 33 nations of Latin America and the Caribbean (already in a nuclear-weapon-free zone under the 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty) had signed joint regional positions in support of a treaty.