Collective Agreements Germany
In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. The Federal Constitutional Court ruled that a controversial collective agreement law was constitutionally sound. The Collective Agreements Unit Act provides that, in the case of competing collective agreements within a company, the agreement between the employer and the union with the largest number of members applies. With this law introduced in 2015, the federal government wanted to avoid power struggles between different unions in which a subgroup of workers was called to strikes at the expense of the wider labour force. It has been argued that small unions have gained disproportionate influence in recent years. This development is seen as a direct consequence of the 2010 Federal Labour Court rulings, which put an end to the Unitarian Bargaining principle, which has been in place for more than 60 years. These cases gave small unions more rights to challenge the established system that had only an agreement for a particular company. Several DGB unions feared that the occupational groups that would benefit most from the strikes would abandon the principle of solidarity.
For their part, employers were concerned that companies would face ongoing turbulence, as some collective agreements could be extinguished over and over again. IAB figures show that in 2011, 23% of conventional jobs reported that there were opening clauses in the agreements applicable to them. They were most common in manufacturing, where 35% of jobs reported that their agreements made them account. Where they were present, they were often used. A total of 59% of jobs whose agreements contained opening clauses on wages reported that they had used them, and 73% of jobs with opening clauses on working time reported using the flexibility they offered.  Figures from the state-funded Institute for Labour Market and Occupational Research (IAB) show that in 2018, almost half (46%) Employees in Germany were covered by collective agreements at the sectoral level, with an additional 8% covering enterprise-level agreements, meaning that tariff coverage was 54%. This allowed 46% of workers whose terms were not set by collective bargaining, although the leaders who completed the survey on which the figures are based, said that the conditions of half (51%) uncovered workers were inspired by agreements at the sectoral level. It is also striking that in West Germany, the proportion of conventional workers is 11 percentage points higher than in East Germany (see table).  A collective agreement, collective agreement (TC) or collective agreement (CBA) is a collective agreement that is negotiated by collective bargaining for workers by one or more unions with the management of a company (or with an employer organization) that regulates the commercial conditions of workers in the workplace.